General Information


This course targets engineering and science research students from multi-disciplinary fields of study who aspire to acquire knowledge foundations in hydrogen energy. The primary purpose of this course is to train the research interns at Green Hydrogen Lab (GHLab) and few highly committed engineering students at Kathmandu University. The course is somehow designed as a ‘crash course’ for beginners in the field with no or less previous learning experiences. The course covers a wide range of topics, further categorized into various sub-topics as follows:  

  1. Historical perspective and the state-of-art in hydrogen technology
  2. Fundamentals of hydrogen production
  3. Storage, T&D, and safety issues of hydrogen
  4. Current practices and future trends in the end-use of hydrogen
  5. Economics of hydrogen technologies
  6. Environmental assessment (E.A.) of hydrogen technologies

This course provides a fundamental understanding of the subject matter, and contents are designed to demonstrate detailed description, theoretical knowledge, and overview to the core of the subject matter, unlike regular seminars or conference presentations. The medium of teaching will be English, and the mode of lectures will be online.

Expectations and Goals

The prime purpose of the ‘Hydrogen Technologies’ course is to deliver interactive lessons on a wide range of topics related to hydrogen energy. This course introduces existing hydrogen technologies (production, storage, T&D, and its end-uses in the transport, stand-alone power systems, industries, etc. This course also highlights the potentials, challenges, and future research direction to hydrogen technologies. The course also emphasizes on current practices and future trends in the end-use of hydrogen, economics (e.g., cost-effectiveness study) of hydrogen technologies, and environmental assessment of hydrogen production and its end use for various applications (e.g., transport such as fuel cell trucks). Such a study refers to a well-to-wheels analysis of automotive powertrains fueled with hydrogen, where we focus on the environmental impacts of such alternative vehicle technology in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. The significant discussions would be around Green Hydrogen Systems.

This course aims to serve as a handbook for beginners who want to pursue their career in hydrogen energy. The course provides a gateway for the participants to broaden their horizon on how to perceive hydrogen technologies. It also aims to encourage the attendees to continue further research and study in the field. In a nutshell, taking this course, one would learn to analytically, theoretically, and experimentally analyze hydrogen energy systems. This course expects attendees to have a robust motivation to learn new things, and ready to work on assignments and projects that focus more on the practical exploration of such technologies before their penetration in the commercial markets.

Course Materials


Required Materials


  • Laptop/MacBook/P.C., Internet connection
  • Diary/pen or note-taking software installed in your system


Course Schedule


Date: 22nd September to 15th October 2020
Days: Every Tuesday & Thursday from 22/09/2020 to 15/10/2020  
Time: 12:00-2:00 PM (Nepali Standard Time)                                                                      
Total duration: 3 weeks 3 days (inclusive of end-date)
1.5 hours lecture from the course instructor & 30 minutes relatable practical/motivational/experience sharing speech from a recognized guest speaker. Timing for the guest speakers is flexible due to the difference in time. The organizing body shall adjust it.

Day CountTopicDateGuest Speaker
Day 1Historical perspective and the state-of-art in hydrogen technology22nd SeptemberProf. Fanhua Ma
Day 2Fundamentals of hydrogen production & Introduction to Mini-project work24th SeptemberProf. Jianbo Zhang
Day 3Storage, Transmission & distribution, and safety issues of hydrogen29th SeptemberEr. Aditya Poudel
Day 4Current practices and future trends in the end-use of hydrogen1st OctoberDr. Marco Adonis
Day 5Economies of hydrogen technologies6th OctoberDr. Xiaoyi He
Day 6Environmental assessment (E.A.) of hydrogen technologies8th OctoberDr. Morapakala Srinivas
Day 7Summary, mini-project review, and closing13th October 
Day 8Mini-project work submission15th October 

Course Details

1. History and the state-of-art in hydrogen technology

Hydrogen, since a prehistoric era, has gone through a series of technological breakthroughs. It is astonishing to see how fast technological development has been achieved in the hydrogen economy. The section describes the historical perspectives of hydrogen and its origin. It also highlights the evolution of hydrogen as an emerging fuel for the future with tremendous prospects. Later, state-of-art hydrogen technologies will be addressed. Hydrogen technologies refer to hydrogen production, storage, T&D, and its end-uses for various applications such as transport, industry, stand-alone power systems, and residence. This lecture also includes the history of fuel cells and electrolyzers. In this section, we will also discuss power-to-gas and power-to-x methods taking a few examples of demonstration projects or case studies. Additionally, future hydrogen energy road-map of several countries like the US, EU, South Korea, Japan, and China will also be introduced to speculate the technological status of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies by 2050 in the global context.  

2. Fundamentals of hydrogen production

In this lecture, terminologies and basic principles of hydrogen production will be explained. Definition of different Electrolysers, operational considerations, parameters, and their interrelationship will be presented. Various production pathways of hydrogen will be introduced, such as NG SMR, coal gasification, solar-to-hydrogen, wind-to-hydrogen, biomass gasification, hydroelectricity-to-hydrogen, nuclear-to-hydrogen, coke-oven gas (by-product). In this lesson, the production process details, challenges, and prospects of these pathways will be highlighted. This section also presents the current status of hydrogen production technologies and future trends. The SWOT analysis of different production options will be addressed.  

3.    Storage, T&D, and safety issues of hydrogen

Various storage technologies for hydrogen, transportation options, and safety issues associated with hydrogen production, storage, T&D, and application must be underlined. This section also covers the standard protocols, safety codes, and regulations for the safe production, storage, and handling of hydrogen.  

4.    Current practices and future trends in the end-use of hydrogen

This section presents the currently available end-uses of hydrogen, such as fuel cells, ammonia synthesis, HCNG, etc. as well as the future trends in the hydrogen utilization. Overall challenges of the current practices need to be highlighted, alongside opportunities for efficient, effective, and cheaper utilization of hydrogen in the future. The SWOT analysis of hydrogen technologies for the end-use of hydrogen will be demonstrated.  

5.    Economics of hydrogen technologies

In this section, the focus is to compare different hydrogen production pathways in terms of cost-effectiveness and compare different types of electrolyzers and fuel cells in terms of financial perspectives. For the renewable energy sources integrated with hydrogen technologies, an approach to techno-economic assessment will be presented to compare various hydrogen-integrated RES systems. Additionally, this lecture also includes the strategy to formulate an energy-economics model to analyze different hydrogen energy systems. The concept of the ‘hydrogen economy’ will be presented in this section.  

6.    Environmental assessment (E.A.) of hydrogen technologies

This section presents an introduction to LCA, its methodology, and simulation techniques to evaluate various pathways of hydrogen production. A short introduction to GREET (The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) software by Argonne National Laboratory will be delivered. This section also assesses the comparison of FCVs, with BEVs and ICEVs, in terms of environmental impacts. The principal idea is to demonstrate a systematic way to perform well-to-wheels analysis for alternative-fueled vehicles or, in general, life cycle analysis of hydrogen technologies, especially electrolyzers and fuel cells.

7.    Summary, mini-project work, and closure

In this lecture, the team leader of GHLab will summarize the actual contents learned throughout the lecture series program. Necessary discussions will be done with Q&A sessions followed by assigning mini-project work to each group. The group work will emphasize a practical scenario, and it will require knowledge from a multi-disciplinary field of study.

Assignment and mini-project work submission

Each group must submit a group assignment and report of mini-project work. Submissions will be made through email. The submission deadline of the assignment will be the day before the next lecture series, and of mini-project work is 15th October 2020.

Course Instructor

Pralhad Gupta

Visiting Researcher, Green Hydrogen Lab
Area of Expertise: Hydrogen production & utilization, hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) engines, life cycle assessment, techno-economic assessment
Affiliation 1: Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Affiliation 2: School of Vehicle & Mobility, Tsinghua University

Biraj Singh Thapa. PhD

Assistant Professor and Team Leader
Green Hydrogen Lab
Department of Mechanical Engineering
School of Engineering, Kathmandu University.

Guest Speakers Details

S.N.NameProposed TitleInstitution/University
1Prof. Fanhua MaResearch of Hydrogen enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG) Internal Combustion Engine and DemonstrationSchool of Vehicle & Mobility, Tsinghua University
2.Prof. Jianbo ZhangWater electrolysis: Status and challengesSchool of Vehicle & Mobility, Tsinghua University
3Er. Aditya PoudelTransmission, distribution and safety issues in HydrogenFortum Oyj, State-owned energy company, Finland
4Dr. Morapakala SrinivasEnvironmental assessments of hydrogen technologies using MCE approachesMechanical Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani (Hyderabad Campus)
5Dr. Xiaoyi HeLife cycle GHG and air pollutant emissions and Levelized cost of driving of various hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicle pathwaysCenter for Sustainable Systems, School for Environment & Sustainability, University of Michigan
6Dr. Marco AdonisWaste plastics gasification: Observations from a pilot plant at CPUTCape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT)